SQL Question(How many CALs)

I know Ignition can run on SQL Express but am looking into installing SQL 2019 Standard. Can anyone point me in the right direction with regards to CALs? Do I need a CAL just for the gateway PC or each of the PLCs I intend to connect to?
Thank in advance

Last I looked, you need CALs for clients (people using the gateway), not necessarily for machinery. At least, that’s how it is supposed to work for web servers dynamically fetching from the DB, and Ignition is fundamentally a webserver. /:

The DB doesn’t know how many real clients are connected though, so there’s some reliance on honest developers. Or site licensing/corporate licensing that doesn’t have limits. But IANAL, and I don’t sell any Microsoft products. For a variety of reasons, including the near-impossibility of complying with their licenses. /:

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That’s putting it nicely, larger organizations have staff that just do MS licensing compliance. I was actually waiting for the justly deserved Microsoft SQL snark.

No need for snark when slamming MS SQL, in my not-so-humble opinion.

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Thanks Phil for getting back so quickly, appreciate it.